• Moray eels are cave dwellers with a bad reputation. They permanently open and close their long jaws, exposing sharp teeth ready to bite. And they can swallow big prey. That might make them (undeservedly) scary, but it is something else about their mouth, throat, and swallowing, that makes them interesting.

    Most fish swallow by creating a negative pressure – a vacuum - in their mouth and throat to transport the prey from the mouth deeper into the throat and the

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  • Sea otters are funny little buggers from the weasel family. Their favorite habitat are kelp forests, their favorite food abalone and other marine invertebrates.

  • Sea stars and other echinoderms are no suckers. But they have suckers - at least most of them do. To walk, to grab and transport food towards the mouth, to build burrows, and to hold on to a substratum. But how do those suckers work? Learn the basics of the echinoderms' water vascular system.

  • Mangroves are not a systematic unit of closely related plants. In contrary, they belong to a variety of genera and families, being united only by their habitat: tropical sea costs. Thus, they all deal with an excess of salt, soft and swampy ground, which is in addition extremely poor in gases. All mangroves developed mechanisms to deal with those issues.